The concept of teaching in relation to education implies a kind of communication between a teacher and a pupil with the intention of guiding the pupil to acquire information, and knowledge, and develop skills or attitudes which are compatible with their understanding and problem-solving capabilities at different ages in order to aid their total growth and successive phases of development.
In educational situations, the teacher is responsible for the management of instruction and for the development of resources so that pupils can learn most effectively. Planning is one of the most important characteristics of an effective teacher. It is generally known that teachers who plan well, teach well and effectively.
Adequate and thorough lesson planning prior to teaching is needed by the teacher to help him or her gain good mastery of the subject matter of the topic which he/she intends to teach. It goes without saying, therefore, that the secret of good teaching is good planning.
Here at sismomex.com, we shall take you through what a lesson plan is, the essential components that a good lesson plan should contain, and finally how to present or deliver the lesson according to a lesson plan.
For effective lesson delivery, the first thing to prepare as a teacher is a lesson plan. Let’s take a look at what a lesson plan is.
The lesson plan
It is the teacher’s written outline for teaching, which includes his/her ways of teaching and what he/she wants the students to learn. A lesson plan is thus, a formalized outline of decisions made during pre-instructional planning on what a teacher intends to teach. It serves as a guide for the teacher while actually teaching the lesson and when constructing evaluation exercises. A lesson plan increases the effectiveness of the teacher in the classroom. It also provides ingredients for creating an atmosphere conducive to learning.
Before we continue, let’s have a look at how useful a lesson plan can be to a teacher.
The usefulness of a lesson plan
- A lesson plan enables teachers to anticipate potential difficulties and problems and plan strategies to contain or solve them in advance.
- It ensures the organization of thoughts and materials for the lesson in sequential order. It allows the logical arrangement of information.
- The lesson plan ensures proper use of the time available as unnecessary digression and discussion is avoided and only essential materials are presented.
- Written lesson plans enable a second person to present lessons in the absence of the class teacher. When another teacher must teach a class, a detailed lesson plan is an indispensable aid.
- Lesson plans enable the teacher to consider several possible approaches and select those which offer the greatest advantage in terms of pupil’s learning.
- Lesson plans instill a feeling of self-confidence in the teacher.
Basically, lesson planning is about:
- what will be taught;
- how the lesson will be taught;
- the materials to be used;
- what the pupils are expected to acquire or learn at the end of the lesson; and
- how learning will be evaluated.
Despite lesson plans and lesson presentations differ from country to country due to differences in the educational system, a good lesson plan should follow a lesson plan format. To ensure that a teacher is going to have a successful lesson, he/she should know exactly how to teach lessons in the classroom. The secret of good teaching is good planning. It is therefore important to know the major components of a good lesson plan.
Basic components of a lesson plan
The following are essential elements to consider when developing a lesson plan.
- The Topic: This consists of words that identify the main driving force of the lesson. It may be stated directly in the form of a question or by use of attention-getting words. The topic is the first essential element of a lesson plan. It should be worded in such a way that is self-explanatory and understandable. Example are “sources of water”, “ types of pollination”, and “ plants that have tap roots”.
- Date: This specifies the day, month, and year of the lesson. Knowledge of the day will allow the teacher to prepare comprehensively for the lesson. The date of the lesson may also help the teacher to easily locate and refer to past or previous lessons.
- Objectives: This component of a lesson defines the purpose, aim, or rationale for the lesson. The objectives include performance objectives stated in such a way as to indicate the specific skills that the pupils will be expected to learn. They give an indication of the specific content to be taught in the lesson. Objectives are what the teacher expects pupils to have learned by the end of the lesson. Objectives should have a clear-cut intention of what the pupils should acquire by the end of the lesson. When writing an instructional objective use a verb that describes observable actions or actions which have observable products, such as: to identify, to draw, to read, to write, to calculate, to solve, or to explain.-
Note that an appropriately stated or written instructional objective must be SMART. This means;
T– Time framed
For example, By the end of the lesson, the pupil(s) will be able to…… “explain the term fertilization”, “state at least three advantages of hard water”
- Related Previous Knowledge (RPK): This is also referred to as entry behavior or prerequisite learning. It the relevant skills, information, and experiences that pupils have about the lesson to be presented. In this case, some students mention ideas and experiences they have either at home or in their daily activities concerning the topic to be taught. The teacher links those experiences to the lesson to enhance understanding. The teacher is required to state pupils’ experiences, which he/she thinks have a bearing on the topic.
- Core points: The core points are the skills, attitudes, knowledge, ideas, and other behavioral outcomes a teacher wants to develop in his/her learners. They refer to the individual concepts dealt with within the lesson. This stage specifies the major landmarks of the lesson which are:
- Introduction: This sets the stage for the lesson to take off. It is the stage where actual teacher-pupil interaction in the classroom begins. It seeks to develop interest and attract attention at the onset of the lesson and makes the teacher aware of prior ideas of the pupil (RPK). The introduction serves to establish a common knowledge base among the pupils. It must be brief and must aim at arresting pupils’ interest well enough to make them get involved and participate in the lesson. It is during the introduction that the content identified as the Related Previous Knowledge is reviewed and linked with the topic of the lesson, thus satisfying the principle of teaching from known to unknown.
- Presentation/Development: Itis here that the teacher deals with the topic and tries to achieve the stated objectives or competencies by providing the learning experiences or activities of students so that he/she can build on them. He/she does this through a series of steps indicated by the number of sub-topics sequenced in a way that will facilitate learning. Lesson presentations should follow the principle of teaching, that is, from simple to complex, concrete to abstract, familiar to unfamiliar, practical to theoretical.
- Application: At this stage in the lesson delivery, students are given the opportunity to use what they have learned to solve problems or to apply the knowledge and experiences in new, unfamiliar and practical situations. This helps to lay the stands of new ideas and skills together and consolidate the knowledge acquired.
- Teaching-learning activities: This is where teaching strategies, techniques and activities which pupils will be exposed to are outlined. This is done to achieve lesson objectives. For example, if the question-and-answer technique is to be used in any part of the lesson, this could be indicated and the purpose for which it is being used also specified.
- Closure: The closure is the stage where the teacher attempts to bring the lesson to an end. It involves summary; review and recapitulation. Here, the main ideas of the lesson are reiterated in the form of questions and answers.
- Evaluation: At this stage, the teacher asks series of questions which directly relate with the lesson objectives. The teacher makes a valued judgement of the whole lesson. Evaluations can be done in the form of written exercises or oral questions and answers. Make sure to evaluate based on the lesson taught. This helps to judge if the lesson objectives have been met or the intended behavior change in pupils is realized.
One important factor to consider in planning a lesson as a teacher is making provisions for Teaching-Learning Materials or Resources (TLMs/Rs). This is a list of audio visual aids, equipment and other instructional materials needed for the lesson. They are materials meant to facilitate learning. A teaching-learning material is introduced at a vantage point of your lesson presentation to complement your explanations to enhance understanding of the lesson.
The teacher is to ensure that the needed equipment and resources are procured or prepared ahead of time. Such equipment, materials and resources must emphasize particular points in the lesson delivery.
Teaching learning materials are very important during instructional delivery. It is hoped that by the time you finish reading the under-listed importance of teaching-learning materials, you will be encouraged to make provision for them while planning your lesson in order to use them in your lesson presentation.
Importance of teaching-learning materials.
- It helps to remove dullness during lesson presentation.
- It makes learning easy and enjoyable for pupils.
- It makes pupils develop interest in the lesson.
- It creates a link between what is real and what is abstract so that concepts are more easily understood.
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